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Whiskey 101: The Mash

When you are just getting into whiskey, you hear a lot of terms that can be a little confusing. At least, it was that way for me. One of those terms was "mash bill". So what is the "mash"?

The mash is a crucial part of the whiskey-making process, as it significantly influences the final flavor of the whiskey. The mash is a mixture of grains and water that is heated to convert the starches in the grains into fermentable sugars. The type of grains used, the proportions of each, and the mashing process itself can all affect the flavor of the whiskey. Today, we’ll take a look at how the mash bill influences bourbon and rye whiskeys.


By law, bourbon must be made from a grain mixture that is at least 51% corn. As the primary grain in bourbon, corn gives bourbon its characteristic sweetness and full-bodied flavor. The higher the corn content, the sweeter the bourbon tends to be. The rest of the mash bill can include rye, barley, and wheat.

  • Rye is often used as the secondary grain and contributes a spicy, peppery flavor to the bourbon, adding complexity and depth. Bourbons with a high rye content are often described as being bolder and more robust.

  • Barley is typically used in smaller quantities in the mash bill. It is primarily used for its enzymes, which help convert the starches in the other grains into fermentable sugars. However, it also contributes a smooth, rich flavor to the bourbon.

  • Wheat can also be used as the secondary grain. Wheat contributes a softer, sweeter flavor compared to rye. Bourbons made with wheat instead of rye are often described as being smoother and more mellow.


Rye whiskey, as the name suggests, is primarily made from rye grain. The mash bill, or the grain mixture used in the mash, plays a significant role in determining the flavor profile of rye whiskey.

Here are some common mash bills used in rye whiskey:

  • Traditional Rye: A traditional rye mash bill typically contains at least 51% rye, as required by law in the United States, with the remainder being a mix of corn and malted barley. This type of mash bill produces a rye whiskey with a robust, spicy flavor.

  • High-Rye: Some distilleries use a high-rye mash bill, which contains a higher percentage of rye, often 70-100%. This results in a rye whiskey with an even spicier, more complex flavor.

  • 100% Rye: As the name suggests, some rye whiskeys are made from a mash bill that is 100% rye. These whiskeys have a very strong rye flavor, with notes of spice, pepper, and grain.

  • Monongahela Rye: Named after the Monongahela River in Pennsylvania, this style of rye whiskey traditionally uses a mash bill of 65% rye and 35% malted barley. This results in a rye whiskey with a strong rye flavor, but also a smooth, malty sweetness.

  • Maryland Rye: Maryland-style rye whiskeys traditionally use a mash bill that includes a higher percentage of corn, often around 30-40%, with the remainder being rye and malted barley. This results in a rye whiskey that is smoother and sweeter than traditional rye whiskeys.

  • Canadian Rye: In Canada, there are no legal requirements for the percentage of rye in a rye whiskey, so the mash bills can vary widely. Some Canadian rye whiskeys are made from a mash bill that is 100% rye, while others may contain a mix of rye, corn, and barley.

The mashing process itself can also influence the flavor of the whiskey. For example, the temperature at which the mash is heated can affect the types of sugars that are produced, which in turn can affect the flavor of the whiskey. The length of time the mash is allowed to ferment can also have an impact on flavor.

In addition, the water used in the mashing process can influence the flavor of the whiskey. Water with a high mineral content can add additional flavors to the whiskey, while soft water can produce a smoother, more mellow whiskey.

Finally, the yeast used to ferment the mash can also affect the flavor of the whiskey. Different strains of yeast can produce different flavors during fermentation, adding another layer of complexity to the final product.


In conclusion, the grains used in the mash and their proportions greatly influence the type, flavor mad properties of the whiskey. But, other factors such as the mash process used, the water used, and the yeast used all also impact the whiskey.

Experimenting with bourbons and ryes with different mash bills is a great way to figure out what your preferences are, and be may lead to a greater enjoyment and appreciation of whiskey.

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